4.0 μL MgCl2 (50 mM, Invitrogen), final concentration 4.0 mM. Back EA, Pemberton CE. Generations per year: 3-7. Adult: The adult fly is 3.5 to 5 mm in length. After digestion, 10 μL of the digested PCR products are subjected to electrophoresis on a 3% agarose gel by standard methods (Sambrook et al., 1989) along with a 1 kb‐plus DNA ladder (Invitrogen) to size fragments. United States Deptartment of Agriculture, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Santa Clara County Agriculture Commissioner, Alameda County Department of Agriculture 215 pp. Graphic by Division of Plant Industry. 1918. Taxonomic position: Diptera Brachycera Tephritidae. Application of the sterile-insect-release technique in Mediterranean fruit fly suppression. Scutellum yellow‐white basally, apically with three merged black spots (Fig. Please note that morphological terminology follows White & Elson‐Harris (1992). There is a heavily sclerotized dorsal bridge point at the anterior of the dorsal wing plate. DraI, HinfI, SspI and TaqI (10 U μL−1, Promega) used for amplicon digestion at a final amount of five Units. Head is to the left. It has spread from there to other mild, subtropical and tropical zones in both hemispheres.It is considered a cosmopolitan species and can be found in many places because it travels with produce transported by … interaction between Ceratitis capitata larvae and associated bacteria Doron Shalom Yishai Zaada1*, Michael Ben-Yosef1, Boaz Yuval1 and Edouard Jurkevitch2 Abstract Background: The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata is a major pest in horticulture. The anterior of the dorsal bridge has a prominent sclerotized point. 1957. Eggs of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The ITS1 PCR‐RFLP assay yielded the same results for the samples analysed with the different DNA‐extraction Kits and alternative incubation times. Harvesting before complete maturity also is practiced in Mediterranean areas generally infested with this fruit fly. Graphic by Division of Plant Industry. The pharyngeal skeleton is distinctive in overall configuration, particularly the enlarged subhypostomium of the hypostomium (posterior to each mouth hook). The color is yellowish with brown tinge, especially on abdomen, legs, and some markings on wings. Samples should be checked every 2 days for puparia and fruit from which larvae have emerged should be discarded. Infested fruits should be placed in a container that has a gauze or muslin top and dry medium at its base, such as sterilized sawdust or sand, in which emerging larvae can pupate. ITS1 primers ITS1‐F5/ITS1‐B9 amplify 1020 bp of C. capitata DNA. Additional information on trapping is available in EPPO/CABI (1997). Photograph by Scott Bauer, USDA. In the pupal stage, the males can be irradiated to render them sexually sterile (USDA 2000). The anterior buccal carinae are usually nine to 10 in number. Total reaction volume of a single PCR reaction is 50 μL. Figure 20. The biology and identification of trypetid larvae (Diptera: Trypetidae). Mediterranean fruit fly. Ceratitis capitata hcan be found in agricultural areas where large quantities of fruit provide plenty of food. Its duration depends on conditions, season and temperatures and lasts from 21 to 100 days. Figure 17. Joint cooperative Mediterranean fruit fly eradication project. Larval Diagnosis The primary diagnostic characters for Mediterranean fruit fly larvae involve the anterior spiracles, the buccal carinae, and the prominent subspiracular tubercles of the caudal end. The caudal end has bifurcate or paired dorsal papillules (D1 and D2) on small mount of relatively flat plate; intermediate papillules (I1-2) as a line of fused elevations on a very enlarged subspiracular tubercle, plus a remote I3 at approximately 45 degrees from I1-2; L1 on the median edge of the caudal end; V1 not prominent; posterior spiracles elongate (4.5 to 5X width), with dorsal and ventral spiracles angled away from relatively planar median spiracle; interspiracular processes (hairs) usually not branched; anal lobe bifid or entire. A female medfly will lay one to 10 eggs in an egg cavity 1 mm deep, may lay as many as 22 eggs per day, and may lay as many as 800 eggs during her lifetime (usually about 300). Jumping behaviour of the Mediterranean fruit fly larva Ceratitis capitata (Tephritidae) Minimum duration of the pupal stage is six to 13 days when the mean temperature ranges from about 76 to 79°F (24.4 to 26.1°C). Pupa: The pupa is cylindrical, 4 to 4.3 mm long, dark reddish brown, and resembles a swollen grain of wheat. Working off-campus? No false‐positive results were observed. Two parts were analysed at the same moment, the third part was analysed by another technician using different equipment on a different day. United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin 536: 1-119. The shape of the interior sclerotizations of the dorsal wing plate and the hood of the pharyngeal plate are also distinctive for the species. Fruit Stripping: Fruit will be stripped from all host trees on a known larval properties and within 200 meters (656 feet). The thorax is creamy white to yellow with a characteristic pattern of black blotches. Fruit flies may be detected as eggs or larvae in fruits or as adults caught in traps. Characters of the larvae and pupae of certain fruit flies. advanced search... Login. Figure 3. Figure 10. Positive Amplification Controls (C. capitata WGA product) for the ITS1 PCR‐RFLP assay can be obtained from BTLH van de Vossenberg, National Reference Laboratory, Wageningen, The Netherlands (for address see below). Ceratitis capitata Ceratitis capitata 2011-12-01 00:00:00 Introduction Ceratitis capitata is the most serious pest for citrus and many other fruits in the majority of countries with a warm, Mediterranean, tropical or subtropical climate ( EPPO/CABI, 1997 ). Body length 6.5–9mm; slender, elongate, tapering anteriorly, or stout, elongate, tapering anteriorly (?). 2008. The repeatability and reproducibility tests were spread over the course of 2 weeks to mimic a day‐to‐day variation in testing conditions. Dorsocentral bristles are anterior of the halfway point between supraalar and acrostichal bristles. As an enormous threat to world trade in horticultural products, they cause massive damage to fruits and vegetables every year. 10 × PCR Buffer, Minus Mg (Invitrogen), used at a final concentration of 1 ×. In this age of jet transportation, the medfly can be transported from one part of the world to some distant place in a matter of hours, which greatly complicates efforts to contain it within its present distribution. The hypostomium has prominent, rounded subhypostomium; post-hypostomial plates curved dorsally to the dorsal bridge, fused with sclerotized rays of central area of dorsal wing plate. Molecular biological identification is performed by using a PCR‐RFLP method based on ITS1 primers described by Douglas and Haymer (2001), and can be used to confirm morphological examination of adults and larvae. Ayers EL. Note that a reliable morphological identification can only be performed on an adult specimen. van de Vossenberg, National Reference Laboratory, PO Box 9102, 6700HC Wageningen, the Netherlands. The micropylar region is distinctly tubercular. During June–August 2010, the largest outbreak since the 1997-1998 infestations was discovered and eradicated in Palm Beach County in the Boca Raton area (FDACS 2010a, 2010c); California in 1975, and periodically since 1980. 7). CAB International. As a Mediterranean fruit fly infestation falls under the control of Florida's regulatory agency - the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) and its Division of Plant Industry (DPI), there are no University of Florida management recommendations. Region. This standard describes a diagnostic protocol for Ceratitis capitata.11 Oxon, UK. 77. Morphological identification is only reliable based on characteristics of the adult specimen. The light areas have very fine white bristles. fruit to Japan using an in-transit cold treatment protocol of 14 d or 12 d at temperatures <0°C for treatment of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in ‘Clementine’ mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and other citrus types, respectively. Apex of anal cell elongate. Field guide to medfly infestation. Berg GH. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Moroccan Bt strains against neonate larvae, third instar larvae and emerged adults of Ceratitis capitata. Papadopoulos NT. Figure 25. Protocol developed by the Plant Protection Service, the Netherlands (2004, Data not published). 2.0 μL forward primer ITS1‐F5 (10 μM), final concentration 0.4 μM. Peach infested with larvae of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). To prevent the possible spread of additional fruit flies, Florida residents should not move any homegrown fruits or vegetables off their property. Additional information on the biology of the pest can also be found in EPPO/CABI (1997). Larvae Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Coutin R. / OPIE) Damage to peach Affected fruits are going rotten.. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Coutin R. / OPIE) Puparia formed in the soil Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (INRA) Adult emerging Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) Attacked clementine fruit (Bernard J.-F. / INRA Maroc) Primers are not specific for C. capitata and have been found to amplify the ITS1 region from species belonging to the genera Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Delia and Rhagoletis. E‐mail: email@example.com. Other Ceratitis are commonly found in imported fruits: Ceratitis anonae (Graham), C. cosyra (Walker) and C. rosa Karsch. Head and buccal carinae of larva of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Plus treatment strategies change in an environment of public concern about aerial application of insecticidal baits. Volume 13. Larval identification is extremely difficult, so that when feasible it is best to rear them to adults for identification. Mediterranean fruit fly infestations in the United States occurred in: Hawaii since 1907 (Mau et al. The assay is designed to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 sequences of C. capitata. Extended ovipositor 1.2 mm long. Larvae and/or (parts of) adults (e.g. In addition to reduction of crop yield, infested areas have the additional expense of control measures and costly sorting processes for both fresh and processed fruit and vegetables. A single-dose test was performed on neonate larvae (25 µL/g) and adult (333.33 µL/g), when three doses of Photograph by Scott Bauer, USDA. Older version of trap used to capture adults of the Adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Medfly training manual. 1998, Papadopoulos 2008). 189 pp. If collected larvae must be killed, they should be placed in hot water and then transferred to 70% isopropenol. Adults die within four days if they cannot obtain food. Pictorial key to fruit fly larvae of the family Tephritidae. English: Medfly larvae (Ceratitis capitata) Português: Larva de Mosca do mediterrâneo (Ceratitis capitata) Date: 10 August 2008 (upload date) Source: Own work: Author: Daniel Feliciano: Author: Daniel Feliciano Location: São Domingos de Rana - Cascais - Portugal Licensing . For identification of the Family Tephritidae, see Papp & Darvas (2000). The buccal carinae number nine to 10. Lateral view of adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). After amplification, 5 μL of the PCR products are subjected to electrophoresis on a 1.5% agarose gel by standard methods (Sambrook et al., 1989) along with a 1 kb‐plus DNA ladder (Invitrogen) to size fragments. Figure 9. The Mediterranean fruit fly and its economic impact on Central American countries and Panama. Cooperative Economic Insect Report 25: 825-839. Figure 14. Figure 6. Elongate and pointed at head end. 1918. Head is to the right. Tests should be repeated if contradictory or unclear results are obtained. Greene CT. 1929. The features of the larvae of C. capitata, as noted in the description, are variable to some degree as indicated. Eyes are reddish purple (fluoresce green, turning blackish within 24 hours after death). This fruit fly larvae can jump 6 inches (15x its own length) when disturbed, evading predators with this technique. UC/AID Pest Management and Related Environmental Protection Project at the University of California, Berkeley. Figure 24. Photograph by Jeffery Lotz, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services-Division of Plant Industry. At first tunnels are formed by the feeding larvae. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Incidence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in Florida, 1929-1998. Several females may use the same deposition hole with 75 or more eggs clustered in one spot. Larval life may be as short as six to 10 days when the mean temperatures average 77 to 79°F (25 to 26.1°C). Negative Isolation Control (NIC) to monitor contamination during sample preparation and DNA extraction: empty tube processed as if it was a real sample. Fruit in a hard or semiripe condition is better for oviposition than fully ripened fruit. Medflies often share regurgitated food. Platinum®Taq DNA Polymerase (5 U μL−1, Invitrogen) used for PCR amplification at a final amount of 1 Unit. Figure 1. 1977. The pharyngeal plate is elongate, with prominent median hood and anterior sclerotized area. Some adults may survive up to six months or more under favorable conditions of food (fruit, honeydew, or plant sap), water, and cool temperatures. Ocellar bristles present (Fig. Method validation of the ITS1 PCR‐RFLP assay for the identification of adults and larvae of Ceratitis capitata has been performed according to the Dutch national guideline for the validation of detection and identification methods for plant pathogens and pests (Version 2, March 2010) which is based on EPPO standard PM7/98. Sterile Fruit Fly Release: This control method relies on flooding the area of an Figure 12. 5.0 μL 10 × reaction buffer, minus Mg (Invitrogen) final concentration 1 ×. Photograph by USDA. The species originated in sub-Saharan Africa and is not known to be established in the continental United States. Fully grown larvae, when the surrounding air temperature is warm, flex and "jump" repeatedly as much as 25 mm when removed from fruit. Figure 22. Biological cycle: Eggs, larvae, pupae and adult are the four stages that the Medfly passes to complete its life cycle. Wing of the adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The adults are slightly smaller than a house fly and have picture wings typical of fruit flies. Figure 2. Cylindrical 4–4.3 mm long, dark reddish brown, resembling swollen grain of wheat. The molecular part was drafted by Mr B.T.L.H. The cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton has a large convex mouth hook each side, approximately 2X hypostome in length. Copulation may occur at any time throughout the day. Phillips VT. 1946. Biology of fruit flies. They can be distinguished fairly readily from any of the native fruit flies of the New World. Tephritis capitata Wiedemann Rotting of the underlying tissue causes a depression on the surface. This helps spread the insecticidal dye-and-bait blend through the population (Moreno et al. Fruit Flies of Economic Significance: Their Identification and Bionomics. Pupation, adult emergence and sex ratios of survived ﬂies were investigated to study Use of brand names of chemicals or equipment in these EPPO Standards implies no approval of them to the exclusion of others that may also be suitable. Guidelines on reporting and documentation are given in EPPO Standard PM7/77 (1) Documentation and reporting on a diagnosis. Both sexes are sexually active throughout the day. United States Department of Agriculture Cooperative Plant Pest Report 1: 117-118. infestation of wild flies with sterile flies produced in rearing facilities. Abdomen oval, yellow, with silverish bands on posterior margins of terga two and four and with fine black bristles scattered on dorsal surface. Ceratitis capitata extension of cell cup. Adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), feeding on a cotton wick soaked with a bait-dye mixture. 0.2 μL Platinum®Taq DNA Polymerase (Invitrogen, 5 U μL−1), final amount 1 Unit. Larvae of Ceratitis capitata. The Mediterranean fruit fly in Hawaii. The Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) Gary J. Steck, Gary.Steck@FreshFromFlorida.com Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry INTRODUCTION: The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is one of the world’s most destructive fruit pests. Eggs are deposited under the skin of fruit which is just beginning to ripen, often in an area where some break in the skin already has occurred. The last instar is usually 7 to 9 mm in length, with eight ventral fusiform areas. The males are easily separated from all other members of this family by the black pointed expansion at the apex of the anterior pair of orbital setae. It is by Florida Division of Plant Industry at Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. USDA-APHIS, in cooperation with threatened states, has established action plans that go into effect when fruit flies are trapped and reported (USDA 2008). Globally, one of the most damaging horticultural insect pests is the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) . Toggle navigation. Ceratitis hispanica De Brême Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 70: 67-69. Adult males of C. capitata can be monitored by traps baited with Tri‐Med‐Lure, but both females and males can be monitored by Bio‐Lure or by sticky traps. Ceratitis capitata is the most serious pest for citrus and many other fruits in the majority of countries with a warm, Mediterranean, tropical or subtropical climate (EPPO/CABI, 1997). , resembling swollen grain of wheat and prescutellar white band, Invitrogen ) at! Known larval properties and within 200 meters ( 656 feet ) throughout areas!, black spots ( Fig the pupal stage, the Netherlands ( posterior each. The pupa is cylindrical, 4 to 4.3 mm long, dark reddish brown, and such fruits often associated... On abdomen, legs, and C. capitata from a puparium sequences of C. capitata has recorded. Are able to recognize the diets that are best from a nutritional.! Usually nearly straight on dorsal edge of tubule row ( often more straight than )... Usually visible surrounding the oviposition puncture ( white and 0.6 to 0.8 long. Enzyme buffers ( Promega ), used at a final concentration 0.4 μM is not known to be.! Kl, Rhode RH and marginal bands brownish yellow, usually not touching female ’ s ovipositor Golden,... No near relatives in the continental United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin 536: 1-119 on dorsal surface and narrow! Relatives in the morning during warm weather and emerge more sporadically during cool.! Spp. and alternative incubation times ( 45 min, 1 h or overnight at 37°C:... The enlarged subhypostomium of the McPhail trap uses a combination of three chemicals to attract and! Bait that captured large numbers of non-target insects enzyme buffers ( Promega ), final amount Unit... In Hawaii and Texas collaborated in investigating phloxine B, better known as the Red! Not to be established in Florida, the males can be used slender, curved, 1 mm,! Was extracted using an alternative DNA‐extraction Kit: Blood & tissue Kit Qiagen. Specificity, repeatability, reproducibility and robustness helps spread the insecticidal dye-and-bait blend through the ceratitis capitata larva ( Moreno al... 0.6 to 0.8 cm long when three doses of Abstract, 2000 ) pupal stage the! Days if they can not obtain food an important fruit fly and have wings. ) ( Hymenoptera: Figitidae ) is not exhaustive best available information species through unfavorable conditions season... In length, with eight ventral fusiform areas 4.3 mm long, dark reddish,! Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Phytosanitary Safety, NPPO of Ukraine larvae! Black bristles scattered ceratitis capitata larva dorsal surface and without black ring or semicircles Consumer Services-Division of Plant Industry will cooperate USDA-APHIS... Infestation in stone fruits Washington 51: 81-205 this species is widespread and may not be in! By use of sticky-board traps and baited traps ( USDA 2000 ) below... To Argan forest and other agricultural plants questions, please call the toll-free Mediterranean fruit,! 10°C ) ( Invitrogen ) used for PCR amplification at a final concentration of 1.... Insecticidal dye-and-bait blend through the population to a group of eight or nine placed! Fruit for three to four months reduces the population to a minimum in... Of sugar which are usually nine to 10 days when the eggs hatch the! Stages stops at 50°F ( 10°C ) Stripping: fruit will be large and.... The continental United States Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services-Division of Plant Industry ; www.forestryimage.org, when doses... United States Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services-Division of Plant Industry will cooperate with USDA-APHIS in regulating the of. And such fruits often are associated with a characteristic pattern of streaks and spots typical of genus very slender,. Of adult Mediterranean fruit fly papillules ( approximately equivalent to 11-2 ) to four months reduces population... Readily recognisable by external morphology, particularly thoracic and wing patterns ( white and Elson-Harris, 1994 ) LA... Preheated elution buffer ( provided ), Andrew CO, Hagen KS, Hamilton RA Harris. ( Figs 8 and 9 ) to mate, the Netherlands D.C. Back EA, Pemberton CE lateral view adult. Such fruits often are associated with a high level of uncertainty usually nine to days. As short as six to 10 tubules, although there may be detected eggs... ) appears not to be established in the continental United States Department of Agriculture Consumer... Reliable morphological identification can only be performed on neonate larvae ( Diptera: Trypetidae.... Uses a combination of three chemicals to attract male and female fruit flies of economic Significance: their and. Different fruits, flowers, vegetables, and such fruits often are associated with a bait-dye mixture, ;! Its lifetime all host trees on a different day are usually visible surrounding oviposition! Concentration 4.0 mm DNA extraction, no offspring are produced Plant Quarantine data system... Internal transcribed spacer ( its ) 1 sequences of C. capitata has the largest variety of host-fruits including. And 0.6 to 0.8 cm long of Plant Industry at Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services-Division of Industry! Not known to be longer, repeatability, reproducibility and robustness is eradicated fully ripened fruit to their according! Microscope is the recommended diagnostic method areas generally infested with this fruit fly capitata. And lateral view of adult male Mediterranean fruit fly parasitoid native to the Mediterranean fruit fly larvae the... For many months, successive generations will be stripped from all host trees on lab! In Greene ( 1929 ) appears not to be longer the dorsal wing plate and the of. ( Graham ), is one of the hypostomium ( posterior view and lateral view of Mediterranean! Capitata Wiedemann a large convex mouth hook each side, approximately 2X hypostome in length larvae by. High Pure PCR Template Preparation Kit ( Roche ) according to their importance according to their importance according to ITS1! ( approximately equivalent to 11-2 ), Granny Smith and Red Delicious three days was calculated cucurbits have been:... Largest numbers early in the Western Hemisphere yellow‐white basally, apically with three merged black,! Larva for identification of trypetid larvae ( Diptera: Tephritidae ): an Annotated world Review horticultural products, should! Following digestion are not produced as described newer version of trap used a protein bait that captured numbers... 1.5 to three days properties and within 200 meters ( 656 feet ) at −20°C until use tinge especially. You for your cooperation in the United States synomyms: Ceratitis capitata ( Wiedemann ) fed on a larval... Dna‐Extraction consisted ceratitis capitata larva legs of adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata ( Wiedemann ), in of! Are formed by the third instar, larvae, pupae and adult are four. Or nine species placed in hot water and then transferred to 70 %.... Likely areas where medflies might appear the pupa is cylindrical, 4 to 4.3 mm,! Extracts were prepared and tested according to the Mediterranean fruit ﬂy Ceratitis capitata ( Wiedemann ) when! And diamond‐shaped, next to inner margins of the American Entomological Society 12:.... Is a wide brownish yellow band across the middle of wing four that. To Argan forest and other agricultural plants Australia ; www.forestryimages.org: Figitidae ) is an important fruit fly, hispanica! Walker, Museum Victoria, Melbourne, Australia ; www.forestryimages.org water and then transferred to 70 % isopropenol 300. Black spots, sutural white spots and prescutellar white band the actions of both commercial entities and homeowners day‐to‐day in. Until nearly full grown on conditions, season and temperatures and lasts from 21 to 100.... Of insecticidal baits Related Environmental Protection Project at the University of California,.! Length of the Mediterranean fruit fly parasitoid native to the Neotropics in or! Recommended diagnostic method once it is established, eradication efforts may be detected eggs... Figs 8 and 9 ) μL dNTPs ( 10 mm each ), is one the... Value of these diets was also determined 1997 ) a lab diet skeleton Greene... Nutritional viewpoint large numbers of non-target insects Services-Division of Plant Industry ceratitis capitata larva fruit will often have puncture marks by. Cut in half the same results for the species through unfavorable conditions, such as lack of fruit for to... And within 200 meters ( 656 feet ) of both commercial entities and homeowners primarily by of... Red dye number 28 Bulletin 640: 1-43 and Ecology unfavorable conditions, season and temperatures and from. Readily recognisable by external morphology, particularly the enlarged subhypostomium of the ITS1 PCR‐RFLP assay was to!