In olden days, the enterprise was divided into departments such as – purchase, production, sales, finance and accounts. Sometimes it is considered as a separate function of management. It is a process which can be achieved through managerial functions. Cooperation serves as the binding force in an organisation in the face of narrow and sectional outlook. Co-ordination suffers due to following limitations: 1. Co-ordination is necessary for the following reasons: 1. The conflict of goals arises because everybody perceives the organizational goals differently and tries to achieve them in his own way. Interdependence of units: Various units of an organisation depend upon â¦ There would not be any misunderstanding among employees across the cadre. The management should encourage the employees to have friendly relationship with others. Good human relations, in turn, depend upon understanding of the goals of the organisation. It traverses the entire process of managing. Co-ordination will be effective, when the following principles are followed: Co-ordinating activity should commerce from the planning stage itself. Organization management refers to the art of getting people together on a common platform to make them work towards a common predefined goal. This involves fixing the time and manner in which the various functions are performed in the organization. He will give them directions, guidelines and instructions for doing a job assigned to them. iii. 4. Good Human Relations: Besides promoting the efficiency of operations, coordination improves the morale and job satisfaction of employees. It harmonizes, unifies and blends all activities and thus, ensures the achievement of predetermined objectives. //]]> Features 6. It therefore becomes essential to co-ordinate, that differences in efforts, approaches or interests are reconciled and individual goals and actions are harmonized so that they may bring about common objectives. The basic function of coordination in an enterprise is the same as that of an orchestra conductor who directs the activities of the orchestra party in such a manner that it produces harmony in music. The method of achieving coordination is largely horizontal, althÂough vertical coordination in a large organisation cannot be ignored. (g) To ensure proper synchronisation of the activities of the enterprise, i.e., the actions of different departments are properly scheduled or timed, so that the various operations and processes are completed in a planned way. Large number of employees work in big business organisation. This happens because through coordination, duplication of efforts is prevented and the time and energy thus saved are better utilized in more creative tasks. Following steps are advocated for overcoming the constraints in co-ordination: i. Lack of co-ordination results in inefficiency poor morale and greater wastage of resources. George Terry, “Co-ordination deals with the task of blending efforts in order to ensure successful attainment of an objective. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. 5. It is the force that integrates all functions of the management. The main purposes which are sought to be realized through coordination are as follows: This can be done by the coordination only. In an organization, all the departments must operate a part of a cohesive unit to optimize performance. These officers iron out the barriers of smooth coordination. It is the responsibility of every manager in the organization. By awarding overlapping efforts and depletion of work co-ordination helps to improve the efficiency of operations. Co-ordination is easier by direct personal contact among the people concerned. For example, take the case of production department, where we have the works manager, and under him the superintendent and then the foreman and last the workmen. Vertical coordination is the coordination between different levels of the organization to ensure that all levels of organization are in harmony with the organizational policies and programmes. Coordination â Importance: Views of Henry Fayol, James D. Mooney, Ralph C. Davis, Coordination â Principles of Coordination according to Mary Parker Follet, â Techniques: Clearly Defined Goals, Cooperation, Harmonized Policies and Practices, Sound Organizational Structure, Managerial Hierarchy and a Few Others, â Coordination and Managerial Function: Planning, Organizing, Directing, Staffing and Control, Problems Encountered in Achieving Co-Ordination: Conflict of Objectives, The Growing Size, Undefined Authority, Empire Building Tendencies and a Few Others, â Advantages: Higher Efficiency and Economy, Good Human Relations, Unity of Direction, Quintessence of Management and Organisational Effectiveness. (c) To complete the various activities of the enterprise as per planned schedule. Business involves multiple operations, manifold policies, varied skills, administrative processes and actions, wherein different managers display their talents in different roles. Also, it is dynamic since functions can change according to the stage of work. Incomplete knowledge, consciousness, capability, talent, experience, bad character of the managers are also the constraints in effective co-ordination. Sound Organisational Structure – Sound organisational structure are also known as a technique of the coordination. This vertical coordination is secured by delegated authority, together with the means and manner of directing, supervising and controlling. Inherent complexity of large scale organisation give rise to problems of co-ordination and controls. An organisation is people. 6. 1. The entire organizational activities should be properly divided department wise and section wise. 3. The conflict between line and staff personnel can also be avoided through proper coordination of their efforts. Unless otherwise stated, they could also refer tâ¦ Lack of administrative capability in the top officers and managers of the enterprise become a problem in establishing co-ordination. Objectives 5. Before finalising the plan, mutual consultation among he concerned people will facilitate the smooth implementation of the plan. There should be a proper system for reporting. concepts cleared in less than 3 steps. For example, if an engineering concern opens a new branch, its personnel department must be ready with personnel to run it. Coordination between various individuals and activities is brought out by communication. In the absence of co-ordination, administration will not be possible. An effective communication should be in place. A vast number of variables due to the incompleteness of human knowledge limit the degree of co-ordination. Different managerial functions are also used to attain organisational goals. Co-ordination makes employees loyal and committed to enterprise which increases effectiveness and stability of the enterprise. iv. Coordination implies synchronization of various efforts of different departments to reduce conflict. The manager will take corrective measures as and when required. Similar problem arises between functional managers at the same levels. The important techniques of coordination are as follows: 1. They will feel that have earned that place. (ii) At middle level, co-ordination is needed to balance the activities of different departments for attaining the organisational objectives. iv. He should ensure the right number of executives in various positions for proper performance of their functions. However, the management can always make special efforts to improve it. Here are some important features of coordination: Question: What is the coordination meaning are the important features? Organization management gives a sense of direction to the employees. Coordination is the essence of management or manager ship, for the achievement of harmony of individual effort towards the accomplishÂment of group goals is the purpose of management. In this situation, levels of authority are super-imposed upon each other, and the activities assigned to the several levels must be coordinated. The management should induce the employees to take active part in meetings, committees, conferences, seminars and the like. When people in an organization is capable of independent and self-directed action and if their actions lie in different directions, coordination becomes difficult to achieve. Tight control of dynamic interfaces is essential to achieving project cost, schedule and scope targets. It is accomplished by means of planning, organising, actuating and controlling.” The aim of co-ordination is to achieve better results and this may be done in different ways. It has been observed that the total accomplishment of ten employees of a department whose efforts are properly coordinated will be far greater than the mathematical sum of their individual accomplishment. The manager should use a group system to take decisions. If the total organization is so designed and patterned that each executive and employees derives job satisfaction, there will be tendency on the part of the executive and employees and employees to stay with the organization. The informal relations speed up the activity of the cooperation. The quality of coÂordination is the crucial factor in the survival of an organisation. 2. Well-defined policies and procedures should also be introduced so everyone has a transparent perspective of â¦ 2.2 Organization An organization is a formal group of people with one or more shared goals. The quality of coordination is the crucial factor in the survival of an organisation. Every forecast is not cent percent perfect and accurate, due to some natural calamities like heavy rains, floods, droughts, earth quakes and certain abnormal changes in the behaviour of individuals and groups in organisation. Coordination is âthe process of linking the activities of various departments of the organisation.â. Organizations have several departments working in tandem to achieve their objectives. Co-ordination becomes difficult to achieve. 3. James D. Mooney considers coordination as the first principle of the organization. “In administration”, says Newman, “coordination deals with synchronizing and unifying the actions of a group of people. In fact, co-ordination makes planning more purposeful, organisation better-knit and control more regulative, it is the key to the process of management. 6. No order to coordinate can achieve coordination. Our experts are available 24x7. But there are some limitations in the area of co-ordination due to the following circumstances: 1. At each level superior coordinate the activities and efforts of subordinates by means of authority. According to Mary Parker Follett, “the First test of a business administration should be whether you have a business with all its parts so co-ordinated, so moving together in their closely knit and adjusting activities, so linking, inter-locking, interrelating, that they make a working unit that is not a congenic of separate pieces, but a functional whole or integrated unit.”. Or, even if they can be produced, the suitable raw material may not be available. This avoids misunderstanding or misrepresentation and the tasks are successfully implemented. This empire building tendency makes co-ordination difficult. It is a by-product of good management. Coordination can be defined as an organizational function in which the resources, responsibilities, and activities of an organization are synchronized in such a way that the corporate objectives are achieved efficiently. In fact, coordination is the first principle of organisation as it expresses the principle of organisation in to. Vague and undefined authority and bitter subordinate relationships cause confusion and conflict of authority. In order for business organizations to improve coordination they must have strong processes in place combined with the proper business management software. Each of them tends to stress one or another different policy or method depending upon the experience of the department. Let’s take a look at coordination meaning. Establishment of an effective communication system. Aims 11. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net! Coordination comes from the Latin cum ordinare âthat is, putting in order, organizing, together with others. Departmentation also leads to co-ordination. It is essential for group efforts and not for individual efforts. The presence of coordination becomes part of their job experience and hence can form a very useful part of their training”. When production is planned with the consent of other concerned managers then co-ordination takes place at planning level. In fact the undertaking of various functions is itself co-ordination. Thus, Terry and Theo Haimann are not in favour of regarding coordination as a separate function of management. Managerial Hierarchy – Managerial Hierarchy in the organisation is also responsible for coordination. Lack of co-ordination results in inefficiency poor morale and greater wastage of resources. 1. An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity â such as a company, an institution, or an association â comprising one or more people and having a particular purpose. There is a difference in knowledge, experience, character and wisdom of managers. Coordination can be achieved more readily in the early stages of planning and policy making. Therefore, with the help of coordination an organization can achieve its objectives easily and quickly. Techniques 14. Hence it involves orderly arrangement of group effort. To the extent rules, regulations, policies, procedures and programmes are clearly laid, there would be consistency in action. Ralph C. Davis looks upon coordination primarily as a vital phase of controlling. Attaining Coordination 17. Lack of cooperation on account of jealousy. 5. Coordination is a process to establish harmony among the different activities of an organisation, so that the desired objectives can be achieved. It is essential that there be complete coordination, so that unity of action on the part of all is achieved. Coordination emphasizes the unity of efforts. The real and lasting solution lies in coordination and integration. Moreover, there are good human relations because the authority-responsibility relationships are clear. In order to overcome the above mentioned problems of co-ordination and get effective co-ordination, the management should follow the following steps –. If an order for the supply of a particular variety of the goods has been booked and the raw materials to produce them are not available, there will be trouble. When all the functions are carried out properly then co-ordination will come by itself. Ordway Tead, “Co-ordination is the effort to assure a smooth interplay of the function and forces of all the different component parts of an organisation to the end that its purposes will be realised with minimum of friction and a maximum of collaboration effectiveness.” The purpose of co-ordination is to synchronise the functions of various departments for achieving organisational goals with minimum efforts. Henry Fayol, “To co-ordinate is to harmonise all the activities of a person in order to facilitate its working and its success.” Co-ordination is necessary to enable planning, directing, organising, controlling, staffing, leading, etc. Coordination is one of the main functions such as â¦ In the case of individual efforts, since the performance of the individual does not affect the functioning of others, the need for coordination does not arise. A modern enterprise consists of a number of departments. 3. 10. Co-ordination is difficult to be achieved under such circumstances. In other words, coordinating function is the orderly arrangement of individual and group efforts to provide unity of action in the pursuit of a common goal. Coordination is the common thread that runs through all activities such as â purchase, production, sales, and finance to ensure continuity in the working of the organisation. According to Newman, âSince co-ordination is concerned with the interÂrelationships of separate activities, it can be no better than the transfer of information about those activities to some common point or points, where the dovetailing takes place.â. This is known as cooperation. Henry Fayol considers coordination as a function of Manager. In sociology âorganizationâ is understood as planned, coordinated and purposeful action of human beings in order to construct or compile a common tangible or intangible product or service. Effective co-ordination of programmes tasks and functions of various departments of an organisation will be an inbuilt control technique, which takes care of effective implementation of plans. Other methods like reports, procedures, bulletins, etc., can also be used properly. Likewise the coordinator of an enterprise also directs the activities of the group in such a manner that it brings harmonious and unified actions to achieve common purpose. A higher degree of coordination happens when the degree of integration in the performance of various functions increases. Coordination will avoid duplication of efforts due to which there will be economy in labour, time and equipment. The manager is required to control the work of everyone in the organisation so that all efforts are directed towards main goals. Without co-ordination, managerial function will not be performed properly. Well aware people will be able to contribute in achieving organizational goals. They are assigned on the basis of their specialisation. Good coordination gives job satisfaction to the employees which keep their morale high. When the activities are properly integrated, there will be lest delays which will bring efficiency in the business organization. The executives are of such a quality or are given such a training that they are able to co-operate and co-ordinate their efforts. Coordination is the function of management which ensures that different departments and groups work in sync. Various departments or sections are assigned different tasks to perform. Contact among the three functional managers at an earlier stage would have made it possible to know whether the order could be executed. (e) Retention of Managerial and Other Personnel: It has been pointed out that sound coordination has a significant effect on the development and retention of good personnel in business. Everybody should be free to express his option. (h) To remove the possible causes of difference of views and conflict of interests among the personnel of the concern. In order that there be understanding among people, there must be effective means of communication among them. 5. The growing size of an organization may cause problems as mentioned below: If the divisions or departments grows beyond a stage, there will be lack of personal contact among the departmental managers. Therefore, the organization experiences an increase in productivity, easier integration of micro and macro level organizational dynamics, a better connection of roles among intra-organizational and inter-organizational groups as well as building trust among competing groups, and defiâ¦ Continuous because it is achieved through the performance of different functions. Coordination also means âintegrating or linking together different parts of an organization to accomplish a collective set of tasksâ or âintegrating or linking together different resources to accomplish a collective set of tasksâ. Therefore, synchronization between them is essential. They may have conflicting objectives and ideas and co-ordination becomes a problem in those situations. The plans of different departments or sections will be co-ordinated to prepare a plan for the whole organisation. We have subsequently discussed the techniques of achieving internal coordination in an organization. For example, when A works with B and B in turn works with C and D, each of the four finds himself influenced by the others, influenced by all the persons in the total situation. Line authorities may prefer to cling to conservatism but staff officers may like to introduce an innovation. (f) Elimination of overlapping or duplication of work. ADVERTISEMENTS: It is âthe process of integrating the objectives and activities of the separate units (departments or functional areas) of an organisation in order to achieve organisational goals efficiently.â. The staffing function can also help in proper co-ordination. How to Improve Coordination in a Business Organization is a common question asked by organizations small and large. Co-ordination is an effort to reach business goals by means of planning, organising, actuating and controlling various activities. There may be instances when performance of subordinates is not up to the mark or it is not in the direction in which it should have been. When various functions are properly planned and various policies are integrated then co-ordination will be easily achieved. In the face of disruptive forces co-ordination helps to ensure unity of action. Where right men are appointed for the right job, co-ordination can be achieved with ease. Harmonized Policies and Practices – Policies, procedure and rules serve as guidelines for decision- making in a constant manner. iii. Individual interest of people become more important and works as a barrier to co-ordination. Coordination is the force that binds all the other functions of management. vi. Co-ordination may be achieved through following processes: The planning is the elementary stage of achieving co-ordination. Diversification in Managerial Qualities – Managers differs in thinking and qualities. The whole process of organisation will lead to effective co-ordination. A manager has to link these diverse groups towards the achievement of a common goal. Horizontal coordination refers to coordination between horizontal departments on the same level in the managerial hierarchy. The following are all example of interface management principles: 1. 4. It is an effort to ensure the objections of the business with minimum friction and maximum co-ordination among various segments of the business. If these are not available then co-ordination cannot be established in the activities of the enterprise. Conflicts resolved by compromise (i.e., each side giving up a little) only postpones settlement of the dispute. On BusinessDirectonary.com, integration is described as the process of attaining close and seamless coordination between several departments or groups. (ii) While performing organising function, there is a need to have co-ordination between authority, responsibility and accountability at different levels. While staffing, the manager should keep in mind the nature of jobs and the type of persons required for managing them. Coordination of various functions between independent managers calls for a greater understanding between the departmental managers so that they may cooperate. 4. Connect with a tutor instantly and get your An organization is a formal group of people with one or more shared goals. 10. The presence of coordination becomes part of their job experience and hence can form a very useful part of their training”. If each individual is allowed to perform his own function efficiently without taking note of the connected function performed by another individual, there will result a chaos in the organisation. i. Compartmentalization arising from lack of understanding. It cannot be left to chance, but the manager must constantly work at it. The exercise of each managerial function involves co- ordination. Objectives may overlap. The manager brings about this process as he performs the basic managerial functions of planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling. ii. Coordination involves an orderly pattern of group efforts. Individual interests are subordinated to the common interest more easily and effectively. To the extent deviations from the standard are addressed and the performance is aligned to the target, there is co-ordination. The objective of coordination is to facilitate accomplishment of overall objectives. People cooperate as a result of understanding one another’s tasks. Therefore, they need to coordinate effectively to ensure that they work in a harmonious manner. Through coordination it is possible to bring about total accomplishment which will be far in excess of the sum of the individual parts. Uncertainties of future – The uncertainties of future pose a serious challenge to effective co-ordination. It is a process by which the manager achieves harmonious group effort and unity of action in the pursuit of a common purpose. The development of data processing devices are of utmost use for facilitating quick communication. Like the orchestra conductor, a manager also performs the function of securing and maintaining unity of direction throughout the organization. Co-ordination can certainly be achieved at planning stage. Now learn Live with India's best teachers. Co-ordination is an essential part of organisation. Coordination may be defined as the process of managing dependencies between activities (Malone & Crowston, 1994). 6. They will feel that have earned that place. Party politics, desire for self-importance, dual superiors, lack of unity of command, lack of co-ordination, defective control are some other constraints in effective co-ordination. The manager brings about this process as he performs the basic managerial functions of planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling. It is the responsibility of every manager in the organization. Such organisation does not create any problem and almost dispute free. Clearly Defined Goals – The goals of the organisation must be defined clearly. The absence of this will create suffocating conditions in which it would be difficult for any person to stay r for long in the organization. The word is derived from the Greek word organon, which means tool or instrument, musical instrument, and organ Coordination is the force that binds all the other functions of management. He must lead them by goals which they accept as justifiable, worthy, and fair to all concerned. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics. Multiple departments usually perform the work for which an organization exists. In the absence of co-ordination there will be chaos and mismanagement. Co-ordination is the result of the process of management. Put simply, it refers to how an organization arranges its staff and jobs so that its work can be performed and its objectives and goals met.There are many different ways in which a company or organization may be structured, depending on why it exists and what its objectives are.For the rest of this article, I shall use the terms âcompanyâ, âbusinessâ or âfirmâ when referring to an organization. Coordination improves relations in the organization Co-ordination makes employees loyal and committed to enterprise which increases effectiveness and stability of the enterprise. Meaning and definition of co-ordination: 6. Diversified and specialised activities under the principle of division of labour leading to an extreme specialisation, demand special attention to co-ordination. It is a key of all managerial functions. Interface management is essentially the project managerâs job: planning, coordinating, and controlling the work of others at project interfaces. 2. Definition of Coordination. The important features of coordination are: In view of the coronavirus pandemic, we are making, Introduction to Concepts of Management and its Characteristics H, Importance and Limitation of Coordination. Variation in Managerial Functions – Managerial functions are not static and constant. This is the synergetic effect of co-ordination. 3. i. Co-ordination is not a separate function but the very essence of management. For example, coordination is necessary between the sales manager, the works manager, the finance manager and the buyer, so that when the sales department is ready to sell the new product, the production department will be in a position to fill the orders, and the financial arrangements have been made so that the necessary funds are available to have the suitable raw materials, etc. ii. It is not a separate managerial function. Modern organisations depend upon speciaÂlisation of functions and activities delegated to different participating individuals. Co-ordination cannot be achieved through orders. Mooney and Reiley – ‘Coordination is an orderly arrangement of group efforts to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common goals.‘, Charles Worth – ‘Coordination is the integration of several parts into an orderly hole to achieve the purpose of understanding.‘, Brech – ‘Coordination is balancing and keeping together the team by ensuring suitable allocation of tasks to the various members and seeing that the tasks are performed with the harmony among the members themselves.‘, Mary Parker Follett – ‘The first test of a business administration should be whether you have a business with all its parts so coordinated, so moving together in their closely knit and adjusting activities, so linking, inter-locking, inter-relating, that they make a working unit that is not congenic of separate pieces, but a functional whole or integrated unit.‘, // ( Source: Pixabay ) regarding coordination as a technique of the members the... 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