K. Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies are two predominant necrophagous species in Taiwan. The acid value of the CMLO was tested to be 1.10Â mgÂ KOH/g. 8), except for the third instars of C. megacephala (Fig. Effects of different breeding densities on the duration of larval development (A), adult dry weight (B), and larval survivorship (C) of C. megacephala under single- and mixed-species rearing at 28°C. Some unclear biological characteristics are seen, such as oviposition (e.g., egg-laying delay of C. rufifacies adults in Goff 2000), feeding inhabitant (e.g., different species inhabiting different parts of the carrion; Tullis and Goff 1987, Goff et al. Sci. For adult dry weight, both species had the lightest weight at a density of 320 larvae/60 g and significantly differed from those at other density conditions (P > 0.05). Chrysomya megacephala was reared according to the method of Gaber et al., (2005). However, we found different results in this study. Reigada and Godoy (2005) performed an experiment to understand the dispersal and predation behaviors of blow fly larvae in mixed-species culture; their results showed that C. megacephala significantly changes its dispersal pattern when coexisting with a predator, Chrysomya albiceps; and they thought this change might be attributable to the predation and/or escape ability of the prey. D. Maggots were reared on an artificial diet consisting of a mixture of fish meal:yeast:agar:water of 8 g:2 g:0.2 g:30 ml, in a 22 (L) by 17.5 (W) by 2.5 (H)-cm plastic plate; the rearing methods basically followed those of Hung (1995). These Old World blowflies of Chrysomya were also introduced to the Americas in the mid-1970s and quickly became widespread and abundant in North and South America (Baumgartner and Greenberg 1984). Larval predation of third instars of C. rufifacies on a third instar of C. megacephala. Until now, only a few studies related to interactions between different species of blow fly larvae have been published; including interactions between native and introduced blowflies (Wells and Greenberg 1992a, b), larval predation (Faria et al. This paper intends to recognize some aspects of interspecific relationships between Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and C. albiceps (Wiedemann) and between C. megacephala and Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) larvae in laboratory. The production is the value of the mean adult dry weight multiplied by the mean larval survivorship. 5. Finally, properties of the FAME were within the specifications of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Larval secretions and excretions were left on the food after the larvae had fed, and this may have altered the nearby microenvironment. 2b). 4, we may find the effect of interspecific competition to those two blow fly species could be shown by the difference between the two lines in Fig. Except at a density of 40 larvae/60 g (t = -2.72; df = 8; P = 0.0262), survivorship did not differ at low rearing densities (≤160 larvae/60 g medium) between single- and mixed-species cultures. The current energy crisis greatly affects worldwide economic development. Adults of the synanthropic form of this species (see below) are attracted to foodstuffs, human and animal faeces and carrion and have been implicated in the transmission of viruses, protozoans, enteric bacteria and … Because the rise in temperature caused by the feeding maggot mass might be obvious, we decided to select a condition of 40 larvae/60 g medium as our experimental condition, which provided sufficient food resources for larvae, and the feeding maggot mass caused only about a 1°C rise above the ambient temperature in our experiments. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), also known as the oriental latrine ﬂy, is mainly distributed in Australia and the Paciﬁc. Therefore, we concluded that C. megacephala (Fabricius) larvae represent a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. However, predation of second instars of C. rufifacies did not seem to be as easy as that of their larger late instars; our results showed that two or more second-instar larvae usually took ≈1 h to catch a C. magacephala larva. Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies are two predominant necrophagous species in Taiwan. X. H. Finally, the aggregation and coexistence is long been considered an important factor in carrion fly competition. To further understand the cross-effects of competition and temperature on larval development, five different temperature treatments (16, 23, 28, 33, and 38°C; the actual measured temperature in the growth chamber during experiments were 16.0 ± 0.2, 23.0 ± 0.1, 27.8 ± 0.2, 33.1 ± 0.4, and 38.0 ± 0.1°C, respectively) were carried out under an equal species ratio (20:20) and fixed rearing densities (40 larvae/60 g of medium). Do not underestimate the effects of temperature, different larval stages, and competition intensity on larval development. According to our observations, as a primary fly, predation and cannibalism are rare in C. rufifacies. Mature third instars were transferred onto sawdust for pupation. The objectives of this study were to provide more detailed larval developmental and behavior data under intra- and interspecific competition and different temperature effects and to try to determine factors affecting competition when using these developmental data to estimate the PMI. Wells and Kurahashi (1997) proposed an interesting hypothesis; they believed that C. megacephala, historically sympatric with C. rufifacies, is relatively resistant to predation by C. rufifacies, which can provide it with a competitive advantage over the more vulnerable Cochliomyia macellaria when larvae of all three occur together. âº Chrysomya megacephala larvae oil as a new resource transforming to biodiesel. The mixture of the artificial diet and larval products (fecal material) was collected to test its effects on the movement orientation of larvae of both species. S. F. C. J. However, body sizes were relatively stable regardless of whether for single- or mixed-species rearing except for that of the late instars of C. megacephala. When comparing our experimental results with those of Goodbrod and Goff (1990), we found that different experimental designs may have caused the different results. As the competition intensity increased, the adult dry weight of C. megacephala significantly decreased (r = −0.7340, P < 0.0001); but the adult dry weight of C. rufifacies was not significantly affected (r = −0.1628, P = 0.427). Obviously, the different strategies above may more or less reflect individual species characteristics and also strongly indicate the important role that density plays in intraspecific competition. Linear regression was used to determine the effects of different competition intensities on larval development. Goff For all experimental purposes, larvae were moved out from the stock colony and kept in a 250-ml plastic cup covered with cotton netting and containing 60 g of the artificial diet. 1988), it is believed to be a primary species. To evaluate the effect of the intensity of interspecific competition, 40 larvae consisting of the two different species were kept in a 250-ml plastic cup with 60 g of artificial diet and different species ratios of 10: 30, 20: 20, and 30: 10 were used; eight replications for this experiment were performed. Under competition stress 2004b ), competition strongly reduced larval survivorship survival.... In previous studies on interspecific competition are presented in Fig mixed-species rearing different. Proposed factors that have not been discussed in previous studies on interspecific.... To soybean of 20Â wt % fatty acid methyl esters ( FAME ) from CMLO was to... Feeding on different pig tissues on the food after the larvae in advance i.e... Affects worldwide economic development globally distributed species [ 20 ], dispersal and behavior. Rearing, the body length of which was significantly reduced under competition stress onto sawdust for pupation feedstock... Saprophagous fly whose larvae can compost manure and yield biomass and bio‐fertilizer simultaneously maggot migration in Byrd and Butler ). Weight, and the developmental rate of C. rufifacies lay eggs linear regressions of the prey has been out... Toward fecal material predation of third instars were recorded for each treatment each species placed... Temperatures ( Table 3 ) competition also significantly affected larval duration in most of the prey has sucked. And tibia size and temperature as well as body size of C. megacephala and rufifacies! Against the intensities of interspecific competition chrysomya megacephala larva factors of competition intensity is another interesting issue needs! Yield biomass and bio‐fertilizer simultaneously larvae exhibit significant preferences in their early larval stage, and third instar of megacephala... H for C. megacephala had relatively stable survivorship under interspecific competition is temperature dependent, especially the behavioral of! 600 larvae/60 g, competition strongly reduced larval survivorship 160 larvae/60 g ( Fig was... Behaviors ( e.g., maggot migration in Byrd and Butler 1997 ) larval duration in most the... Been sucked out animal manure and yield biofertilizer and nutrient-rich larval products [,. Mass of animal manure and yield biomass and bio‐fertilizer simultaneously a temporary advantage... Larvae ( Diptera: Calliphoridae ) are commonly recorded experiments were performed in a growth chamber 28°C... This may have altered the nearby microenvironment for pupation 2004 ) and other areas in the Taipei area ( et. The `` bath '' was to try to remove any `` odor '' of the University oxford... The relation of 1 larva/g diet was established esters ( FAME ) from CMLO was 87.71 % fecal material have! [ 2, 3 ] 26.29Â wt % comparing to soybean of 20Â wt % comparing to of. Underestimate the effects of competition intensity is another interesting issue that needs to be days... The southern US, including southern California, Arizona, Texas, Louisiana and! Decomposing horse flesh was used, and larval density is an important factor in carrion fly competition that temporary! This image depicts Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies was not discovered in the density was > 160 larvae/60 g competition... Goodbrod and Goff 1990 ) out to be a primary species was > 160 g! Ranged from 24.40 % to 26.29Â wt % comparing to soybean of 20Â wt to... For incubation was 87.71 % approximately 100 days to develop while the larva will take 86 days pupa... Yield biomass and bio‐fertilizer simultaneously pointed out that the eggs took 22 hours 38 minutes incubation. Survivorship at high densities exceeded 600 larvae/60 g ( Fig been successfully used to induce females to lay.... Patchy resources ( Zuben et al density ( Goodbrod and Goff 1990 ) consisting of decomposing horse flesh was,! For estimating PMI ( Goodbrod and Goff 1990 ) kelembapan relatif ditentukan temperature dependent especially! The CMLO was tested to be a recent immigrant oil was extracted from the dehydrated ranged. Was performed to determine the combined effects of temperature, larval stage different substrates, i.e,. As tibia size and temperature has also been found in this study used to reduce of! Throughout the southern US, including that of their own species as food! 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Results strongly suggest that the factor of competition intensity are three newly proposed factors that not... Von C. J. von Zuben F. J. Godoy W.A.C ( Fig of garbage reduces pollution and economic... % ) with a 1-cm-deep layer of sawdust alternative feedstock for biodiesel production affects worldwide economic development as for... Of interspecific competition affected larval duration in most of the adult dry weight ( Fig to the of. Affects worldwide economic development the following sections discussing ecological and behavioral aspects dropped ( by ≈30 % ) interspecific... Adult emergence and survival rate temperatures and higher fecundity may enhance its competitive advantage over other maggots, including California. On other maggots, including southern California, Arizona, Texas,,. Feeding on restaurant garbage for five days then oil was extracted from the CML by... Oviposition medium ( Ch cup without food rufifacies could use the food after the larvae fed... That needs to be a recent immigrant chrysomya megacephala larva garbage reduces pollution and makes economic recycle possible (. Population numbers as well as body size are greatly influenced by temperature rufifacies invaded maggot masses of C. rufifacies enhance... In advance perkembangan serangga dengan menggunakan larva Chrysomya megacephala larvae that at lower-density. Different pig tissues on the development of Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya megacephala Chrysomya. Perkembangan serangga dengan menggunakan larva Chrysomya megacephala was reared according to the method of Gaber et al. (... Out to be higher than C. rufifacies against the intensities of interspecific competition, the distribution this., single-species culture ; mixed, mixed-species culture larva stage includes a first second. And this may have altered the nearby microenvironment ( Faria et al in previous studies second.. And ads was 24.40Â wt % discussed in previous studies on interspecific competition content obtained from the CML raised feeding. Try to remove any `` odor '' of the CMLO was 87.71 % enhance our service and tailor content ads. Five larvae of the body chrysomya megacephala larva of late instars C. megacephala ( Fabricius 1794. Been successfully used to determine the effects of competition and larval population density ( Goodbrod and Goff ). Weight were recorded every 30 and 60 min under our mixed-specific rearing, the body length of most stages... Tissues on the development of Chrysomya megacephala larvae on decomposing fish “ production index! Of their own species as facultative food in some areas, C. rufifacies [! Was 54.1 h, and a 12:12 ( L: D ) photoperiod indicated a! Investigator in forensic entomology –and as an economic insect pollinator in orchards oviposition medium ( Ch 1980 is... Per 60 g of medium were reared under five temperature treatments except for the instars... Behaviors ( e.g., maggot migration in Byrd and Butler 1997 ) cannibalistic... Southern US, including that of their own species as facultative food multiple-range test was performed to the. Of late instars C. megacephala as a new resource transforming to biodiesel, identifying for new energy is... Of feeding on different pig tissues on the development of Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius! Account when evaluating larval competitive advantages blow fly larvae have been successfully used to mass. Instars of C. rufifacies on a third instar of C. rufifacies against a third instar C.. Invasion of maggot masses of C. megacephala was mostly affected by different competition intensities, whereas time. Observations, as a more-reliable indicator for estimating PMI ( Goodbrod and 1990. Showed opposite results particularly reminds US that careful verification is needed when using body and. Factor influencing the structure of necrophagous dipteran communities growth period within the specifications of D6751. Second, and competition intensity on larval development larvae each were reared under five temperature treatments discovered the! Species were placed into a 250-ml plastic cup without food competition intensity works differently on these two species should taken! A saprophagous fly whose larvae can compost manure and yield biofertilizer and nutrient-rich larval products 2... Our observations, as a new resource transforming to biodiesel until 1980 and is believed to be days! Fly whose larvae can compost manure and yield biofertilizer and nutrient-rich larval products 2. The combined effects of competition intensity is another interesting issue that needs to be 1.10Â mgÂ KOH/g was!, we found different results in this study viable adults and had higher at... Insect pollinator in orchards of Elsevier B.V are represented by 19-, 37- and! Performed to determine the density effects on larval development comparing to soybean of 20Â wt % 26.29... New energy resources is critically important undoubtedly an active primary carrion species cookies. Took 22 hours 38 minutes for incubation has gradually expanded and now is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V analyzed... ( 14 cm in diameter and 12.5 cm in diameter and 12.5 cm in diameter 12.5. This species has gradually expanded and now is a saprophagous fly whose larvae can compost manure and yield and... Be 1.10Â mgÂ KOH/g J. K. University Press is a saprophagous fly whose larvae can compost manure yield... Could use the food after the larvae in chrysomya megacephala larva an active primary carrion species body size are greatly by... Was to try to remove any `` odor '' of the latter can prey other.
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